農產品 Agri-Products

米 Rice

稻米是草本稻屬的一種,也是稻屬中作為糧食的最主要最悠久的一種,又稱為亞洲型栽培稻。稻米的生命週期為一年,禾本科植物,單子葉,適合於溫濕的環境,成熟時約有1到1.8米高,葉子細長,約有50到100公分長,寬約2到2.5公分。稻米的花非常小,開花時,主要花枝會呈現拱形,在枝頭往下30到50公分間都會開小花,大部分自花授粉並結種子,稱為稻穗。一般稻穗的大小在5到12毫米長,2到3毫米厚度。

Rice is a herbaceous genus Oryza, as a grain of crops, the most important one and the oldest, and also known as the Asian type of cultivated rice. The life cycle of crop is generally one year. It belongs to grass, with monocots and is suitable for warm and humid environment. The mature rice is about 1 to 1.8 meters tall, slender leaves, about 50-100 cm long and a width of 2 to 2.5 cm. Rice flower is very small. The shape of flowers in upper part is like the arch. The flowers in the branches down between 30-50 cm are most self-pollination and seed, called rice. The size of rice generally 5-12 mm long, 2-3 mm thickness.

 

現時全世界有一半的人口食用稻,主要在亞洲、歐洲南部和熱帶美洲及非洲部分地區。稻的總產量佔世界糧食作物產量第三位,僅低於玉米和小麥,但能維持較多人口的生活,所以聯合國將2004年定為「國際稻米年」。

At present, half the world's population eat rice, mainly in Asia, southern Europe and parts of tropical America and Africa. The total production of the world's rice crop yield in third place, just below the corn and wheat, but able to maintain more of the population lives, so the 2004 United Nations as the "International Year of Rice.

胡椒 Pepper

胡椒是一種原產於印度的一種藤本植物,攀生在樹木或樁架上。又名古月、黑川、白川。它只能生長在年降水量2500毫米的熱帶地區,生長期中間還需要一段幹熱的間隔時間,印度尼西亞、印度、馬來西亞、斯裏蘭卡以及巴西等是胡椒的主要出口國。它的種子含有揮發油、胡椒堿、粗脂肪、粗蛋白等,是人們喜愛的調味品。胡椒氣味芳香,有刺激性及強烈的辛辣味,黑胡椒尤比白胡椒味濃。使用黑胡椒做菜時不宜煮得時間過長。胡椒種植歷史悠久,不僅是一種調味品還是一味中草藥。現在為常用調味品的胡椒在歷史上卻曾有很重要的地位。

Pepper is native to India, a vine, climbing trees or piles born in the rack. Also known as Ku, Kurokawa, Shirakawa. It can only grow in 2500 mm annual precipitation in tropical regions, growing middle still need some time between hot and dry. Indonesia, India, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Brazil are the major exporters of pepper. Its seeds contain volatile oil, piperine, crude fat, crude protein, etc., is a favorite condiment. Pepper has fragrance and strong spicy. The tasting of black pepper is more heavy. It is not suitable to be cooked in long time. Pepper cultivation has a long history, not just a condiment or blindly herbs. Now commonly used spice pepper in history has had a very important position.

原產於中美洲,是印地安人培育的主要糧食作物,原本是體型很小的草,喜高溫,經美洲原住民培育多代後才出現較大型的玉米。16世紀時傳入中國,最早記載見於明朝嘉靖三十四年成書的《鞏縣誌》,稱其為「玉麥」,其後嘉靖三十九年《平涼府志》稱作「番麥」和「西天麥」。「玉米」之名最早見於徐光啟的《農政全書》。在原產地美洲以外,中國是玉米種植最為普及的地區之一。玉米也是全世界總產量最高的糧食作物。

Corn also known as maize, is a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous people in Mesoamerica. After European contact with the Americans in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, traders and explorers carried maize back to Europe and introduced it to their countries. Corn spread around the world because of its characteristics to grow in diverse climates. China is one of the countries that has the highest production of corn. Corn is the highest production crop in the world.

 

玉米的根為鬚根系,除胚根外,還從莖節上長出節根:從地下節根長出的稱為地下節根,一般4~7層;從地上莖節長出的節根又稱支持根、氣生根,一般2-3層。株高1-4.5米,稈呈圓筒形。全株一般有葉15-22片,葉身寬而長,葉緣常呈波浪形。花為單性,雌雄同株。雄花生於植株的頂端,為圓錐花序;雌花生於植株中部的葉腋內,為肉穗花序。雄穗開花一般比雌花吐絲早3-5天。

Corn's stem has the appearance of a bamboo cane and its leaf grows from each node. Elongated stigmas called silks emerge from the whorl of husk leaves at the end of the ear. Generally, corn is 2.5m in height, though some natural strains can grow 12m. Corn breeding in prehistory resulted in large plants producing large ears. Modern breeding then began with individuals who selected highly productive varieties in their fields and then solo seed to other farmers.

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